Preventing HIV infection among injecting drug users in high-risk countries

an assessment of the evidence

Publisher: National Academies Press in Washington, D.C

Written in English
Cover of: Preventing HIV infection among injecting drug users in high-risk countries |
Published: Pages: 282 Downloads: 560
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Subjects:

  • AIDS (Disease) -- Prevention,
  • HIV infections -- Prevention,
  • Needle exchange programs,
  • Intravenous drug abuse

Edition Notes

StatementCommittee on the Prevention of HIV Infection Among Injecting Drug Users in High-Risk Countries, Board on Global Health, Institute of Medicine of the National Academies.
ContributionsInstitute of Medicine (U.S.). Committee on the Prevention of HIV Infection Among Injecting Drug Users in High-Risk Countries., National Academies Press (U.S.)
Classifications
LC ClassificationsRA643.8 .P75 2007
The Physical Object
Paginationxvi, 282 p. :
Number of Pages282
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL17180321M
ISBN 100309102804, 0309663431
ISBN 109780309102803, 9780309663434
LC Control Number2007295550

  Understanding the association between methamphetamine (MA) use and HIV risk behavior among people who inject drugs (PWID) will assist policy-makers and program managers to sharpen the focus of HIV prevention interventions. This study examines the relationship between MA use and HIV risk behavior among men who inject drugs (MWID) in Tehran, Iran, using coarsened . hiv infection and intravenous drug use: critical issues in besides frank aids, hiv infection also appears to lead to epidemic-level increases in a variety of fatal infections among iv drug users. several studies of prevention show active risk reduction among iv drug users, but new methods are urgently needed to increase amount of risk reduction. The high prevalence of HIV infection and drug dependence among prisoners, combined with the sharing of injecting drug equipment, make prisons a high-risk environment for the transmission of HIV. Ultimately, this contributes to HIV epidemics in the communities to which prisoners return on their release. We reviewed the effectiveness of interventions to reduce injecting drug use risk behaviours. Almost all of the new HIV infections reported in Libya ( of ) during were among drug users. No country in this region systematically samples and surveys high-risk groups for HIV/AIDS surveillance; instead the general population is represented by low-risk groups such as ante-natal mothers and blood donors.

Health effects. While needlestick injuries have the potential to transmit bacteria, protozoa, viruses and prions, the risk of contracting hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and HIV is the highest. The World Health Organization estimated that in , 66, hepatitis B, 16, hepatitis C, and 1, HIV infections were caused by needlestick injuries. In places with higher rates of blood-borne diseases.   heterosexual man or woman who does not regularly use condoms during sex with partners of unknown HIV status who are at very high risk of HIV infection (for example, people who inject drugs or women who have bisexual male partners). Take PEP within 72 hours after a possible HIV . Drug injection is a method of introducing a drug into the bloodstream via a hollow hypodermic needle and a syringe, which is pierced through the skin into the body (usually intravenously, but also at an intramuscular or subcutaneous location). As of , there were million people worldwide who used injection drugs, of which 22% are from developed countries.

Preventing HIV infection among injecting drug users in high-risk countries Download PDF EPUB FB2

Preventing HIV Infection among Injecting Drug Users in High Risk Countries describes the evidence on the intermediate outcomes of drug-related risk and sex-related risk prior to examining the impact on HIV transmission. This report focuses on programs that are designed to prevent the transmission of HIV among injecting drug users.

Preventing HIV Infection Among Injecting Drug Users in High-Risk Countries: An Assessment of the Evidence. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: / Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

doi: / Presents report of the Committee on the Prevention of HIV Infection Among Injecting Drug Users in High-Risk Countries held in Geneva, Switzerland, in December Topics include treatment for drug dependence, sterile needle and syringe access outreach, education, taking action, and more.

For public health personnel. Softcover. Get this from a library. Preventing HIV infection among injecting drug users in high risk countries: an assessment of the evidence. [Institute of Medicine (U.S.). Committee on the Prevention of HIV Infection Among Injecting Drug Users in High-Risk Countries.; National Academies Press (U.S.);].

Get this from a library. Preventing HIV infection among injecting drug users in high risk countries: an assessment of the evidence.

[Institute of Medicine (U.S.). Board on Global Health.; National Academies Press (U.S.);]. Sheyi Lawoyin, M.P.H., joined the Institute of Medicine in September and most recently provided support to the Board on Global Health’s study on HIV Prevention among Injecting Drug Users in High-Risk Countries.

Prior to this, she served as a Senior Program Assistant with the Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice in. An estimated million persons inject drugs in countries []; nearly three-quarters of these individuals live in low- and middle-income countries [].Although injection drug use directly accounts for only 5%–10% of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections worldwide, this percentage increases to 30% after excluding sub-Saharan Africa [].

See the latest data on HIV among people who inject drugs, and learn what CDC is doing to prevent HIV infections among this population. Injection Drug Use and HIV Risk Learn about the risk of getting or transmitting HIV through injection drug use, find out.

People who inject drugs (PWID) are at high risk for getting HIV if they use needles, syringes, or other drug injection equipment—for example, cookers—that someone with HIV has used. New HIV diagnoses a among PWID have declined in recent years in the 50 states and District of Columbia.

However, injection drug use in nonurban areas has. The best way to reduce the risk of getting or transmitting HIV through injection drug use is to stop injecting drugs. People who inject drugs can talk with a counselor, doctor, or other health care provider about treatment for substance use disorder, including medication-assisted treatment.

Across the estimated 13 million injecting drug users globally there is great variation in drug use patterns, behaviours and contexts. Over the past 25 years explosive HIV epidemics among injecting drug users have been witnessed in almost all regions, first in New York City in the late s and more recently in such diverse countries as China.

Globally, around 13 million people inject drugs and million of them are living with HIV. Injecting drug use accounts for approximately 10% of HIV infections globally and 30% of those outside of Africa. Regional HIV prevalence rates are high in people who inject drugs in all parts of the world (up to % in East and Southern Africa).

2 Institute of Medicine () Preventing HIV Infection among Injecting Drug Users in High Risk Countries: An Assessment of the Evidence National Academies Press, Washington DC 3 Mathers BM, Degenhardt L, Phillips B, Wiessing L, Hickman M, Strathdee SA, et al.

Global epidemiology of injecting. If you keep injecting drugs, here are some ways to lower your risk for getting HIV and other infections: Use only new, sterile needles and works each time you inject. Many communities have needle exchange programs where you can get new needles and works, and some pharmacies may sell needles without a prescription.

Never share needles or works. OBJECTIVE: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection associated with injecting drug use has been reported in at least 98 countries and territories worldwide. There is evidence that new epidemics are emerging in different regions, including Eastern Europe, Latin.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV-Associated Behaviors Among Injecting-Drug Users - 23 Cities, United States, May –February Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) ; – China Ministry of Health, Ministry of Public Security and the State Food and Drug.

After 3 decades of fighting HIV in the United States, we now have more prevention tools with proven effectiveness than ever. Our national investment in HIV prevention has contributed to dramatic reductions in the annual number of new infections since the peak of the epidemic in the mids, and an overall stabilization of new infections in recent years.

14 Given continued increases in the. Des Jarlais DC, Perlis T, Arasteh K, et al. HIV incidence among injection drug users in New York City, to use of serologic test algorithm to assess expansion of HIV prevention services.

Introduction. HIV spread rapidly among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Bangkok in the late s and HIV prevalence has remained high, ranging from 30% to 50% throughthe highest among risk populations –, we conducted the Bangkok Tenofovir Study (BTS), a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, that showed that daily prophylaxis.

Countries, Committee on the Prevention of HIV Infection among Injecting Drug Users in High-Risk. Preventing HIV Infection Among Injecting Drug Users in High Risk Countries: An Assessment of the Evidence. Washington: National Academies Press, © Material Type: Document, Internet resource: Document Type: Internet Resource, Computer File.

Syringe exchange, by itself, may not reduce drug use. But denying injection drug users clean injection equipment does nothing to lessen or discourage their drug use—it only makes another public health crisis, such as another HIV outbreak and the undeterred expansion of HCV, more likely.

Thailand's early cases of HIV/AIDS occurred primarily among gay men. The virus then spread rapidly to injecting drug users (IDUs), followed by prostitutes. Between andthere were increases in HIV prevalence from 17 to 28 percent among men who have sex with men in Bangkok.

In addition, prevalence among IDUs still ranges from 30 to   South Africa’s national HIV plan aims to provide just over new users from high-risk groups - such as sex workers, injecting drug users, men who have sex with men and young women — with.

People who inject drugs (PWID) are a key target population for HIV prevention because they experience HIV risk related to their substance use, injecti. And while it is important to include IDUs as study participants for HIV vaccine trials, harm-reduction strategies are currently the only proven way of preventing HIV infection.

The immediate goal of harm-reduction strategies is not to reduce the use of drugs; instead it is to reduce the associated risk of HIV infection with drug use.

Ininjection drug use accounted for 8 % of the estimated new HIV infections and 16 % of infections among those living with HIV infection at the end of Although new HIV infections attributed to drug injection have been declining in the United States since the late s [ 3 ], rates continue to be high among specific sub-populations.

Additionally, a number of trials have shown the effectiveness of PrEP in preventing HIV infection among women at a high risk of HIV The FEM-PrEP Phase III trial evaluated the safety and effectiveness of once-daily oral Truvada for HIV prevention in 1, women aged years in Kenya, South Africa and Tanzania.

Illicit drug users have increased risk of contracting HIV through the use of used needles, shared injection supplies, contaminated injection drugs, and reduced judgment leading to a heightened chance of high risk behavior. For illicit drug users who have HIV/AIDS, the complications due to the illicit drugs and the conditions associated with.

Consistent condom use reduces the risk of heterosexual HIV transmission by about 80% over the long-term. Where one partner of a couple has HIV infection, consistent condom use results in rates of HIV infection for the uninfected person below 1% per year.

Some data support the equivalence of internal condoms to latex condoms, but the evidence is not definitive. In83% of HIV infections in Russia were registered among IDUs, 6% among sex workers, and 5% among prisoners. - though as of the share of IDUs had gone down to ca. 70%.

In% of adults and children with advanced HIV infection were receiving antiretroviral therapy. An international trial testing a preventive drug treatment for HIV nearly halved the rates of HIV transmission among injecting drug users.

Injecting drug use causes one in ten new HIV infections. HCV infection is highly prevalent among injection drug users -- studies have found that % of injection drug users are infected with HCV. The CDC estimates that 60% of all new cases of. The defining characteristics of successful HIV prevention among injection drug users are the reduction of the HIV incidence rate to a low level, typically less than 2 per person-years at risk, and the maintainance of the reduced rate over long periods.

2–4 In the Vancouver Injection Drug Users Study, the incidence rate of HIV infection.